Hold ’Em or Fold ’Em? This A.I. Bluffs With the Best Cade Metz, The New York Times · July 12, 2019 at 6:34 pm In his 14 years on the professional poker circuit, Darren Elias had never faced anyone who played with so little fear. A typical poker player, when dealt two Jacks — one faceup, the other hidden, a hand neither good nor bad — would proceed with caution. But not Mr. Elias’s opponent, who seemed to know exactly what to do. Even when Mr. Elias decided to bluff, betting as if he held a strong hand, his opponent effectively called him on it: charging ahead, matching each bet with what seemed to be complete confidence, and winning. Even more remarkable: This opponent was a machine. The automated poker player, called Pluribus, was designed by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh and the Facebook artificial intelligence lab in New York City. In a paper published on Thursday in Science, and with the World Series of Poker underway in Las Vegas, the researchers described how Pluribus recently bested Mr. Elias and several other elite professionals in a multiplayer game of no-limit Texas Hold ’Em, the most popular and complex form of poker.